City Walls (Byzantine Walls)
Today, the part of historic peninsula called ''suriçi'' is completely surrounded by city walls. However, big part of Byzantine walls couldn't reach theese days. In 657 B.C first City walls built. These walls were starting from Sirkeci and following Sarayburnu and Marmara coasts to the Haghia Sophia. These walls were demolished by Roman Emperor Septimus Severus in 193-211 and rebuilted them. Istanbul was surrounded with City walls third times by Great Constantinus in 306-337.Only the Ese Gate reached today from the city walls built by the great Constantinus. Theodosius II walls built in 413, starts from the end of Constantinus walls and theese are composed three seperate sections, Kara walls, Marmara walls, Haliç walls.
Kara walls starts at the Haliç coast in the Ayvansaray and it extend to the Yedikule and it's length 6,5 km. The land walls, which reach the most solidly, consist of double walls and ditches and walls has 400 towers, 46 doors.
Haliç walls, start from the Ayvansaray and they lying along the Haliç to the Sarayburnu.The walls consisting of a single wall remained little trace today. Marmara walls, Designed along the seacost between Sarayburnu and Yedikule. Marmara walls, Designed along the seacost between Sarayburnu and Yedikule. Theese walls were built because of protect city against the attact, wich come from sea.
During the Byzantine and Ottoman periods, the city walls, which were destroyed due to earthquakes, fires and encirclement, were repaired as much as daily.